Temporally precise single-cell-resolution optogenetics
Authors: Shemesh, Or A.; Tanese, Dimitrii; Zampini, Valeria; Linghu, Changyang; Piatkevich, Kiryl; Ronzitti, Emiliano; Papagiakoumou, Eirini; Boyden, Edward S.; Emiliani, Valentina Date: 2017-11-13 • Pages: 1796–1806 • DOI: 10.1038/s41593-017-0018-8 Article URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41593-017-0018-8
Optogenetic control of individual neurons with high temporal precision within intact mammalian brain circuitry would enable powerful explorations of how neural circuits operate. Two-photon computer-generated holography enables precise sculpting of light and could in principle enable simultaneous illumination of many neurons in a network, with the requisite temporal precision to simulate accurate neural codes. We designed a high-efficacy soma-targeted opsin, finding that fusing the N-terminal 150 residues of kainate receptor subunit 2 (KA2) to the recently discovered high-photocurrent channelrhodopsin CoChR restricted expression of this opsin primarily to the cell body of mammalian cortical neurons. In combination with two-photon holographic stimulation, we found that this somatic CoChR (soCoChR) enabled photostimulation of individual cells in mouse cortical brain slices with single-cell resolution and <1-ms temporal precision. We used soCoChR to perform connectivity mapping on intact cortical circuits.